A Critical Look at the Child Welfare System
Decision Making in Child Welfare


1. Theodore J. Stein, Eileen D. Gambrill and Kermit T. Wiltse, Children in Foster Homes: Achieving Continuity of Care, (New York: Praeger, 1978).

2. Theodore Stein and Tina Rzepnicki in Brenda G. McGowan and William Meezan, ed., Child Welfare: Current Dilemmas, Future Directions, (3rd. ed.; Illinois: F. E. Peacock, 1983). p. 261.

3. Duncan Lindsey, The Welfare of Children, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994) p. 138.

4. Theodore Stein and Tina Rzepnicki, p. 261. See note 2.

5. Duncan Lindsey, The Welfare of Children, pp. 127 - 128.

6. Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory Services, Child Welfare Decision Enhancement Project Phase II: Patterns of Decision Making -- Final Report, 1995.

7. Bernice Boehm, "An Assessment of Family Adequacy in Protective Cases," Child Welfare (January 1962): 10 - 16. Also, Stein, Gambrill and Wiltse citing Bernice Boehm, "Protective Services for Neglected Children," in Social Work Practice: Proceedings of the National Conference on Social Welfare (New York: Columbia University Press, 1967), pp. 109 - 25.

8. Alfred Kadushin, Child Welfare Services (2nd. ed.; New York: Macmillan, 1974) p. 50.

9. Michael H. Phillips, Ann W. Shyne, Edmund A. Sherman and Barbara L. Haring, Factors Associated with Placement Decisions in Child Welfare, (New York: Child Welfare League of America, 1971).

10. Edmund V. Mech, "Decision Analysis in Foster Care Practice," in Helen D. Stone, ed., Foster Care in Question (New York: Child Welfare League of America, 1970) pp. 26 - 51.

11. Brenda G. McGowan in Brenda G. McGowan and William Meezan, ed., Child Welfare: Current Dilemmas, Future Directions, pp. 74 - 76. citing William Ryan and Laura Morris, Child Welfare: Problems and Potentials (Boston: Massachusetts Committee on Children and Youth, 1967).

12. Theodore J. Stein, Eileen D. Gambrill and Kermit T. Wiltse, pp. 10 - 11. See note 1.

13. Naomi Golan, "How Caseworkers Decide: A Study of the Association of Selected Applicant Factors with Worker Decision in Admission Services," Social Services Review 43 (1969): 289 - 296.

14. Scott Briar, "Clinical Judgements in Foster Care Placement," Child Welfare 42 (April 1963) pp. 161 - 169.

15. Duncan Lindsey, The Welfare of Children, p. 135.

16. Department of Human Services, State of Georgia Program Evaluation: Child Protective Services Program, Office of Planning and Budget, Department of Audits, (January 1995) p. 5.

17. Phillips, Shyne, Sherman and Haring, Factors Associated with Placement Decisions in Child Welfare. See note 8.

18. Michael H. Phillips, Barbara L. Haring and Ann W. Shyne, A Model for Intake Decisions in Child Welfare, (New York: Child Welfare League of America, 1972).

19. Deborah Shapiro, "Agency Investment in Foster Care: A Study," Social Work, 17 (July, 1972): pp. 20 - 28.

20. Trudy Festinger, "Going Home and Returning to Foster Care," reprint of an article which originally appeared in Children and Youth Services Review, Vol.18, Nos. 4/5, pp. 383-402, 1996. Taub Urban Research Center, Internet Home Page. (Article since removed from the World Wide Web).

21. Martin Wolins, Selecting Foster Parents, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1963).

22. Theodore Stein and Tina Rzepnicki, p. 260.

23. Testimony of Dennis Lepak, Foster Care, Child Welfare, and Adoption Reforms, Joint Hearings before the Subcommittee on Public Assistance and Unemployment Compensation of the Committee on Ways and Means and the Select Committee on Children, Youth and Families, U.S. House of Representatives, April 13 and 28, May 12, 1988.

24. John M. Hagedorn, Forsaking Our Children: Bureaucracy and Reform in the Child Welfare System,

25. Written Testimony of Ed Devine, Sunset Review of the Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory Services, hearing, Texas Legislative Sunset Commission, May 22, 1996.

26. Glenn Puit, "Dead Toddler's Dad Says County Probe Did Not Reach Far Enough," Las Vegas Review-Journal, (December 18, 1997).

27. Donald Brieland, An Experimental Study in the Selection of Adoptive Parents at Intake, (New York: Child Welfare League of America, 1959).

28. Theodore Stein and Tina Rzepnicki, p. 271.

29. Leroy Pelton, For Reasons of Poverty: A Critical Analysis Of The Public Child Welfare System In The United States, (New York: Praeger, 1989) p. 75.

30. John M. Hagedorn, Forsaking Our Children: Bureaucracy and Reform in the Child Welfare System.

31. Diane J. English and Peter J. Pecora, "Risk Assessment as a Practice Method in Child Protective Services," Child Welfare, 5, (September/October 1994). pp. 451-468.

32. Utah Office of the Legislative Auditor General, Child Welfare System, audit, (1993). Download Complete report or report digest in PDF format. See also generally the article Caseworker Training in this series.

33. Douglas J. Besharov, "Rights Versus Rights: The Dilemma of Child Protection," Public Welfare, (Spring, 1985) pp. 19-27.

34. Jeanne M. Giovannoni and Rosina Becerra, Defining Child Abuse, (New York: Free Press, 1980). p. 2.

35. Theodore Stein and Tina Rzepnicki, p. 270.

36. Michael Wald, "State Intervention on Behalf of 'Neglected Children': A Search for Realistic Standards," 27 Stanford Law Review (1975). p. 1014.

37. Joseph Goldstein, Albert J. Solnit, Sonja Goldstein, and Anna Freud, The Best Interests of the Child: The Least Detrimental Alternative, (New York: Free Press, 1996) pp. 92 - 94.

38. Erin Hallissy, Grand Jury Sees Foster Care Bias: Harsh Report in Contra Costa," San Francisco Chronicle, (June 2, 1995).

39. Richard Wexler, Wounded Innocents: The Real Victims of the War Against Child Abuse, (Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books, 1995) p. 118.

40. Conference Proceedings, Second Annual National Conference, The Indian Child Welfare Act: Unto the Seventh Generation: Workshop 2, Difficult Casework, January 17, 1992. (Los Angeles, Ca.: The Regents of the University of California, 1993). See also generally the article Under Siege: The Indian Child Welfare Act in this series.

41. Testimony of Richard Wexler, Balancing Diverging Interests, hearing, Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources Subcommittee on Children and Families Hearing on Child Protection, May 25, 1995.

42. Douglas J. Besharov, The Vulnerable Social Worker: Liability for Serving Children and Families, (Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers, 1985) p. 136. See also the article Defensive Social Work in this series.

43. Dateline NBC, Little Girl Lost, transcript, August 28, 1996.

44. Duncan Lindsey, The Welfare of Children, pp. 136 - 138.



Index | Back | Home