1. United States District Court, D. Maryland, L.J. By and Through Darr v. Massinga, decision, Civ. No. JH-84-4409, September 27, 1988. F.Supp. 508 (D.Md. 1988). Excerpts are provided describing the sampling methodology and findings.

2. Casereading conducted by Theodore J. Stein in conjunction with Del A. v. Edwin Edwards, (1988).

3. Testimony of Stephen P. Berzon, Foster Care: Problems and Issues, hearing, Subcommittee on Select Education, Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives, September 8, 1976. (Testimony soon to be placed on line).

4. David Kaplovitz and Louis Genevie, Foster Children in Jackson County, Missouri: A Statistical Analysis of Files Maintained by the Division of Family Services, (1981).

5. Testimony of Marcia Robinson Lowry, Foster Care, Child Welfare, and Adoption Reforms, Joint Hearings before the Subcommittee on Public Assistance and Unemployment Compensation of the Committee on Ways and Means and the Select Committee on Children, Youth and Families, U.S. House of Representatives, April 13 and 28, May 12, 1988.

6. Superior Court of Arizona, Maricopa County, Bogutz v. Arizona, 2nd amended civil complaint, No. CV94-04159. July 1994.

7. Jeff Jacoby, "Catastrophe in Foster Care," Boston Globe, (July 18, 1995).

8. Mary I. Benedict and Susan Zuravin, Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment By Family Foster Care Providers (Baltimore: John Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, 1992).

9. Testimony of Larry Michalcyzk, Innovative Child Welfare Services Programs Designed to Strengthen and Preserve Families, hearing, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, May 1, 1991.

10. Testimony of Marcia Robinson Lowry. See note 5.

11. Testimony of Richard Wexler, Balancing Diverging Interests, hearing, Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources Subcommittee on Children and Families Hearing on Child Protection, May 25, 1995. See also Richard Wexler, Wounded Innocents: The Real Victims of the War Against Child Abuse, (Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books, 1995) pp. 316 - 317.

12. Testimony of Richard Wexler. See note 11.

13. Renny Golden, Disposable Children: America's Child Welfare System, (Belmont, Ca.: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1997) p. 156.

14. Fred Bayles and Sharon Cohen, "Chaos Often the Only Parent for Abused or Neglected Children," Associated Press as reported in Los Angeles Times, (April 30, 1995)

15. Jill Smolowe, "Making the Tough Calls," TIME Magazine, (December 11, 1995).

16. Testimony of Marcia Robinson Lowry. See note 5.

17. Timothy W. Maier, "Suffer the Children," Insight on the News, (November 24, 1997). p. 11.

18. Seth Farber, "The Real Abuse," National Review, (April 12, 1993).

19. United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, LaShawn A. v. Sharon Pratt Kelly, decision, Docket No. 91-7159, April 16, 1993.

20. Nicole Gaouette, "Child Welfare Systems as 'Neglected' as the Kids it Serves," Las Vegas Sun, (April 5, 1996); Nicole Gaouette, "A System as 'Neglected' as the Kids it Serves," Christian Science Monitor, (February 21, 1996).

21. United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, decision, Baby Neal v.Robert P. Casey, Docket No. 94-1381, December 22, 1994.

22. Associated Press, "Parents Sentenced For Torture," (August 1, 1996).

23. Children's Rights, Inc., An Undeclared War: Poor Children in America - A Plan for Reform, (New York: author, 1997).

24. Jeanne Ambrose, "Beleaguered Children," Chicago Tribune, (July 24, 1994).

25. Margot Hornblower, "Fixing the System," TIME Magazine, (December 11, 1995).

26. Little Hoover Commission, Report #115, For The Sake of the Children: Restructuring Foster Care in California, April 9, 1992.

27. John M. Hagedorn, Forsaking Our Children: Bureaucracy and Reform in the Child Welfare System, (Chicago: Lake View Press, 1995) pp. 98 - 99.

28. Little Hoover Commission. See note 26.

29. Sandra Mathers, "Horror Stories About HRS Fill Workshop," Orlando Sentinel, (January 20, 1996).

30. Michael T. Skrak, Office of New York State Senator Franz S. Leichter, New York State Abandons Victims of Institutional Child Abuse, September, 1993.

31. Robby Trammell and Nolan Clay, "DHS Practice Draws Fire," The Oklahoman, (September 27, 1992).

32. Lois M. Collins, "Agency Releases a Fuller Accounting," Deseret News, (May 24, 1996); Tom Hayes, "Foster-care Lawsuit Loses Panel Member," Deseret News, (June 4, 1997).

33. Renny Golden, Disposable Children: America's Child Welfare System, (Belmont, Ca.: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1997) p. 179.

34. For an analysis of the overuse of foster, see generally Douglas J. Besharov, How Child Abuse Programs Hurt Poor Children: The Misuse of Foster Care, (D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1986). See also generally Leroy Pelton, For Reasons of Poverty: A Critical Analysis Of The Public Child Welfare System In The United States, (New York: Praeger, 1989). See also generally How Great the Need? in this series.

35. Deborah L. Cohen, "Foster-Care Reforms Often Ignore Problems Children Face in School," Education Weekly, (June 15, 1991).

36. Children's Rights, Inc., An Undeclared War: Poor Children in America - A Plan for Reform, (New York: author, 1997).

37. Michael Oreskes, "A System Overloaded," New York Times, (March 15, 1987).

38. Renny Golden, Disposable Children: America's Child Welfare System, (Belmont, Ca.: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1997) pp. 185 - 187.

39. San Francisco Civil Grand Jury, Juvenile Justice System, 1997.

40. Lois M. Collins, "Settlement Reached for Kids' Sake," Deseret News, (May 17, 1994).

41. "Why New Pact Should be Big Break for Children," Deseret News, (May 19, 1994).

42. Marianne Funk, "6 'M*A*S*H Judges' to Handle Backlog of Foster-Care Cases," Deseret News, (March 21, 1995).

43. Robert B. Gunnison, "State to Be Sued Over Foster Kids," San Francisco Chronicle, (October 23, 1996).

44. General Accounting Office, Foster Care: Health Needs of Many Young Children Are Unknown and Unmet, Letter Report, GAO/HEHS-95-14, May 26, 1995.

45. United Press International News Service, (October 25, 1996)

46. Deborah Sharp, "In Florida, A Challenge to Foster Care," USA Today, (February 14, 1995).

47. Edna McConnell Clark Foundation, Keeping Families Together: Facts on Family Preservation Services, (New York: author, 1990).

48. Renny Golden, Disposable Children: America's Child Welfare System, (Belmont, Ca.: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1997) p. 154.

49. 1992-93 Santa Clara County Grand Jury, Final Report, Investigation: Department Of Family And Children's Services, 1993.


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