A Critical Look at the Foster Care System
Foster Care Financing


1. Richard Lowry and Richard Samuelson, "How Many Battered Children?" National Review, (April 4, 1993)

2. General Accounting Office, Letter Report, Child Welfare: Complex Needs Strain Capacity to Provide Services, Reference: GAO/HEHS-95-208 (September 26, 1995).

3. Fred Bayles and Sharon Cohen, "Chaos Often the Only Parent for Abused or Neglected Children," Associated Press as reported in Los Angeles Times, (April 30, 1995)

4. General Accounting Office, Letter Report, Foster Care: State Efforts to Improve The Permanency Planning Process Show Some Promise, GAO/HEHS-97-73, May 7, 1997.

5. David Van Biema, "The Storm Over Orphanages," TIME Magazine, 144 (December 12, 1994)

6. Toshio Tatara, "Analysis of Foster Care Exit Rates in Twelve States From FY 84-FY 90," paper presented at the Foster Care Roundtable, Boys Town, Nebraska, May 20-22, 1994 cited in Richard Gelles, The Book of David, (BasicBooks: New York, 1996). p. 131. See also: Conna Craig and Derek Herbert, Institute for Children, The State of the Children: An Examination of Government-Run Foster Care, National Center for Policy Analysis, August 1997 and Suzanne Chazin, "The Tragedy of Foster Care," Reader's Digest, (May 1998) in which the higher figure is provided. The $10 billion figure is often quoted as an estimate of total foster care spending. Both figures are probably underestimates as they do not take into account the funding mechanisms described here.

7. "Maximize Federal Funding for Child Welfare Programs," Gaining Ground: Progress and Reform in Texas Government, Volume 2

8. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Maintenance Payments Retained by Child Placing Agencies in the Texas Foster Care Program, Audit, Reference: A-06-95-00035, February 8, 1996

9. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Review of Rising Costs in the Emergency Assistance Program, Audit, Reference: A-01-95-02503, October 6, 1995

10. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Review of Emergency Assistance Payments Claimed by the Maryland Department of Human Resources Under Title IV of the Social Security Act, Audit, Reference: A-03-93-00562, March, 1994

11. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Allocation of Title IV-E Training Costs - Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Audit, Reference: A-05-96-00013, August 22, 1996

12. Tim Novak, "Foster Care Funds Diverted," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, (February 15, 1993).

13. Final Report, Investigation: Department Of Family And Children's Services, 1992-93 Santa Clara County Grand Jury

14. South Carolina Legislative Audit Council, Report to the General Assembly: Selected Issues in Foster Care, Audit, Reference: LAC/94-2, Chapter 2. January, 1995 Executive Summary.

15. Patricia Hurtado, "Suit Targets Child Welfare Agency," Newsday, (February 2, 1996)


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Last updated August 28, 2002