1. Testimony of Kenneth Wooden, Foster Care: Problems and Issues, hearing, Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives, September 8, 1976.

2. Testimony of Douglas L. Wilder, Close to home: "Community-based Mental Health Services for Children,", hearing, Select Committee on Children, Youth and Families, U.S. House of Representatives, April 29, 1991. p. 15.

3. Testimony of Mark Soler, Children in State Care: Ensuring Their Protection and Support, hearing, Committee on Children, Youth and Families, U.S. House of Representatives, September 25, 1986.

4. South Carolina Legislative Audit Council, Report to the General Assembly: Selected Issues in Foster Care, Audit, Reference: LAC/94-2, Chapter 2. January, 1995.

5. Testimony of Kenneth Wooden. See note 1.

6. Uri Berliner, "Mining Riches from Troubled Kids," San Diego Union-Tribune, (June 5, 1994).

7. John Hubner and Jill Wolfson, Somebody Else's Children: The Courts, the Kids, And the Struggle to Save America's Troubled Families, (New York: Crown, 1996). p. 213.

8. Uri Berliner, "Care Group is Overpaid, State Finds - California Crest Homes' Excess Put at $2 Million," San Diego Union-Tribune, (March 30, 1995); Uri Berliner, "Mining Riches from Troubled Kids," San Diego Union-Tribune, (June 5, 1994); Uri Berliner, "Board Set to Ask for Investigation of Group Homes," San Diego Union-Tribune, (June 15, 1994).

9. Testimony of Dennis Lepak, Foster Care, Child Welfare, and Adoption Reforms, Joint Hearings before the Subcommittee on Public Assistance and Unemployment Compensation of the Committee on Ways and Means and the Select Committee on Children, Youth and Families, U.S. House of Representatives, April 13 and 28, May 12, 1988.

10. Paul Carpenter, "They Prefer the Girl to be On the Lam," The Morning Call, (February 27, 1996).

11. David Van Biema, "The Storm Over Orphanages," TIME Magazine, 144 (December 12, 1994).

12. Associated Press, "Boys Town Supervisor Charged With Sexual Battery of Girl," as reported in Naples Daily News, (October 12, 1997).

13. Testimony of Pat Hanges, Children in State Care: Ensuring Their Protection and Support, hearing, Committee on Children, Youth and Families, U.S. House of Representatives, September 25, 1986.

14. Martha Shirk, "Idyllic Setting Masks Child Abuse, Neglect," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, (October 3, 1993).

15. Renny Golden, Disposable Children: America's Child Welfare System, (Belmont, Ca.: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1997) p. 135.

16. Testimony of Diane Weinroth, Foster Care: Problems and Issues, hearing, Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives, September 8, 1976.

17. James Rainey, "Reforms Called for in Group Homes," Los Angeles Times, (April 10, 1997).

18. 1996-1997 Los Angeles County Grand Jury, Juvenile Services Committee, Final Report, Early Release #3, March 1997.

19. Margot Hornblower, "Fixing the System," TIME Magazine, (December 11, 1995).

20. Testimony of Peter Digre, President Clinton's Budget Proposal For New Funding for Child Welfare Services Targeted for Family Support and Preservation Services, hearing, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, April 21, 1993. pp. 87 - 88.

21. Los Angeles County Grand Jury. See note 18.

22. California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits, Los Angeles County: The Department of Children and Family Services Can Improve Its Processes To Protect Children From Abuse and Neglect, October 1996.

23. Tony Rizzo, "Eight at Group Home Charged in Crime Spree," Kansas City Star, (June 18, 1997).

24. Kimberley Murphy, Associated Press, "Is The State Up To The Task Of Assessing Children's Needs?" as reported in Deseret News, (June 11, 1995).

25. Jack Kresnak, "Eagle Village Ruling Delayed," Detroit Free Press, (September 6, 1996); "Girls Led into False Claims, Suits Say," Around the State, Detroit News, (April 21, 1996); "Former Clients Sue Sex-Abuse Therapist - They Say They Were Coaxed Into Admissions," Detroit Free Press, (September 5, 1996).

26. Paul Carpenter, "Make Those Probing Abuse Accountable," The Morning Call (November 18, 1997).

27. Testimony of Kenneth Wooden, Foster Care: Problems and Issues, hearing, Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives, September 8, 1976. p. 52.

28. At the time this article was written, Newsworks provided searches of multiple newspapers with articles spanning several months of time. Unfortunately, the Newsworks service is no longer available.

29. Robert Hanley, "Changes Ordered at Children's Center," New York Times, (January 21, 1989).

30. Michael Oreskes, "A System Overloaded," New York Times, (March 15, 1987).

31. Associated Press, "Hard Labor Reported at Children's Home," as reported in New Orleans Times-Picayune, (January 6, 1990).

32. Peg Tyre, "Violent Lives at Crossroads," New York Newsday, (January 29, 1992).

33. Nina Bernstein, "Probe of Foster Care Nightmares," New York Newsday, (May 2, 1990).

34. Kent Himes, "Hampton Boys Home 'Going On' After Scandal," Atlanta Journal / Constitution, (March 3, 1994); Kent Himes, "Home for Troubled Boys Gets New Start After Scandal," Atlanta Journal / Constitution, (April 19, 1994); Kent Kimes, "Troubled Boys' Home Ready to Rebound: New Management has Taken Over Center," Atlanta Journal / Constitution, (April 19, 1994).

35. Cheryl Fincher, "2 Who Ran Youth Home Charged in Boys' Abuse," Macon Telegraph, (September 23, 1997).

36. Michael Powell, "Violence Rife at Two Homes for Troubled Teens," New York Newsday, (November 14, 1990).

37. Robby Trammell and Nolan Clay, "DHS Practice Draws Fire," The Oklahoman, (September 27, 1992).

38. Michael T. Skrak, Office of New York State Senator Franz S. Leichter, New York State Abandons Victims of Institutional Child Abuse, September 1993.

39. Matthew Brelis, "Cap in State Negligence Cases Called Too Low," Boston Globe, (April 26, 1995).

40. Testimony of Mark Soler, Children in State Care: Ensuring Their Protection and Support, hearing, Committee on Children, Youth and Families, U.S. House of Representatives, September 25, 1986. p. 117.

41. Testimony of Dennis Lepak. See note 9.

42. Mark Smith and Allan Turner, "Camps Under Fire," Houston Chronicle, (July 19, 1996)

43. Office of Planning and Budget, Department of Audits, Department of Human Resources, State of Georgia Program Evaluation: Outdoor Therapeutic Program, May 1995.

44. John M. Hagedorn, Forsaking Our Children: Bureaucracy and Reform in the Child Welfare System, (Chicago: Lake View Press, 1995) p. 49.

45. San Francisco Chronicle, "Judge Orders Compliance With Foster Kids' Law," (November 7, 1997)

46. John North, Knoxville News-Sentinel, "Home Closed Over Sexual Abuse to Sell Assets," (September 9, 1997).

47. Tom Jackman, "Man Admits Bilking Group Home," Kansas City Star, (March 14, 1997).

48. Judy Sheindlin, Don't Pee on My Leg and Tell Me It's Raining, (New York: HarperCollins, 1996) p. 157.

49. Reuters, "Teens In Public Care More Troubled," (December 13, 1996).

50. Richard Danford and Ana Espana, "The Foster Care System Swallows Up Children," San Diego Union-Tribune, (December 8, 1995).

51. Martha Shirk, "Children Tell Own Story of Foster System," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, (October 21, 1991).


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